The incident of tumor in Italy
It is estimated that in 2016, in Italy, will be diagnosed 365.800 new tumor cases, of which 189.600 (54%) in men and 176.200 (46%) in women. Overall, in our Country about 1.000 people receive a new tumor diagnosis every day. Excluding skin carcinomas (not melanomas), the most frequent tumor, in the total of men and women, results colorectal with 52.000 new diagnosis estimated for 2016 (29.500 men and 22.900 women),followed by breast tumor with about 50.000 new cases.Lung tumor with over 41.000 new cases 27.800 men and 13.500 women), prostate tumor with 35.000 new diagnosis and bladder with about 26.600 new cases (21.400 among men and 5.200 among women). In men prevail prostate tumor, which represents the 19% of all diagnosed neoplasms; then follow lung (15%), colorectal (13%), bladder (11%) and stomach (4%). Among women, breast cancer represent the 30% of neoplasms, followed by colorectal (13%), lung (6%), thyroid (5%) and uterus body (5%). In general in Italy, in 2008-2016 period, was confirmed an incidence decrease for all male tumors (-2,5% for year) mainly due to the decrease of lung and prostate tumors. Considering the single tumor location, in men appear to be in drop: upper aero digestive tracts, esophagus, stomach, colorectal, liver, lung, prostate and bladder. In women, instead, are in drop: stomach, colorectal, biliary tree, cervix and ovary. It can be observed a geographical difference with levels reducing from North to South. In fact, the standardized incidence rate (on European population) for all tumors is decreased, among men, by 8% in the Centre and by 15% in the South compared to the North, and among women respectively by 5% and 16%. Based on these differences, there may be protective factors (different lifestyles, eating habits, reproductive factors) that still endure in the regions of Central and Southern Italy, but also less exposure to carcinogenic factors (smoking habit, environmental pollution etc…). On the other hand, in Southern regions, where cancer screening are still not very common, it has been observed no reduction of mortality and of the incidence of breast, colorectal and cervix tumor. For some tumors (esophagus and melanoma) are confirmed double incidence rates in the North compared to the South for both sexes. Even for kidney and renal pelvis, the incidence is dramatically lower in the South in both sexes, as well as for prostate tumor, which continue to record higher incidence rates in the North. It must be noted, in countertrend for both sexes, ahigher incidence in the South than in the North of bile tree tumor, of Kaposi’s sarcoma and thyroid. In women it can be highlighted a major incidence in the South for liver tumor. The data, already known in scientific literature, has been connected to local genetic and environmental conditions (like the prevalence of virus infection of hepatitis B and/or C for liver tumor) which are unique in southern Italy. The incidence is influenced, not only by the gender but also by the age: in young men (0-49), the most frequent tumor is represented by testicular cancer, practically rare in elderlies; followed by melanoma, Non-Hodgkin lymphoma, colorectal and thyroid tumor. In 50-69 age class and in people over seventy, the most frequent is the prostate tumor, followed by lung, colorectal and bladder; in the 5th place, we find upper aerodigestive tract, while stomach cancer is a prerogative of elderly people (70+).In females, instead, breast cancer represents the most frequent neoplasm in all age classes, although with different percentage (41% in young vs 21% in very elderly). In young women (0-49 years), thyroid, melanomas, colorectal and cervix tumors. In the intermediate class (50-69 years), colorectal, uterus body, lung and thyroid tumors, while in the elderlies (70+years) colorectal, lung, stomach and pancreas tumor.