Liquid biopsy gives a new dimension to screening and to tumor diagnosis
Circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) study as new non-invasive test for tumor diagnosis and surveillance is a topic of great interest. CtDNA sequencing is a powerful information instrument in the specialist’s hand, same as tissue biopsy. Circulating tumor DNA was detected also during non-invasive prenatal tests and in over 75% of cancer patients who participated to studies to assess the sensitiveness of the techniques of ctDNA detection. In the framework of molecular mutation-based targeted therapies, ctDNA research shows a concordance rate >80% if compared with biopsy tissue (current gold-standard). Through the study of ctDNA, a basic blood sample becomes a liquid biopsy for cancer that can: provide indications for early diagnosis, provide prognostic information, improve the choice ofpersonalized therapeutic options, and allow the monitoring of the recurrence or the resistance (all with fewer or no tissue biopsy). Given the recent approval of liquid biopsy by FDA, it is important for professionals to know the rapid progresses that may interest the clinical practise thanks to the introduction of this new technology.